Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic Reader’s Bible

John Dyer has developed an online reader’s Bible, primarily as a pedagogical tool, that will allow customized output of text, vocabulary, and morphology.

For instance, with just a few clicks and keystrokes, here’s a version of Gal 3:15–16 showing vocabulary that occurs 50 or fewer times in the New Testament.


Kudos to John for creating such a wonderful tool, and thanks to Tommy Keene for his post on this resource.

Articles and Adjectives and Substantives: Oh, My!

Keeping the New Testament Greek, attributive adjective “position” classifications straight in one’s head can be challenging, but here is a short summary (see Porter 117):

  1. Article-adjective-substantive (e.g., ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος),
  2. Article-substantive-article-adjective (e.g., ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀγαθὸς),
  3. Substantive-article-adjective (e.g., ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀγαθὸς),
  4. Adjective-substantive or substantive-adjective (e.g., ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος or ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθὸς).

In contrast to these four basic patterns, the potentially legitimate structure article-adjective-article-substantive (e.g., ὁ ἀγαθὸς ὁ ἄνθρωπος) is not used (Mounce §9.12).

In this post:

William Mounce
William Mounce
Stanley Porter
Stanley Porter

PDF Markup Tool

I recently found a thread on the Zotero forum that mentions the PDF XChange Viewer, which is supposed to allow users to markup PDF files.

Especially if you use Zotero, you may want to use PDF XChange as your default PDF browser plugin. After installing PDF XChange, you may still need to do the following:

  1. Open PDF XChange.
  2. Go to the “Edit” menu, and click “Preferences.”
  3. Under “Categories,” click “File Associations.”
  4. Check “Display PDF in browser,” click OK, and close PDF XChange.

Also, if you have the Adobe Acrobat plugin installed in Firefox:

  1. Open Firefox.
  2. Go to the “Tools” menu, and click “Add-ons.”
  3. Go to the “Plugins” tab, click the “Adobe Acrobat” plugin, and click “Disable.”
  4. Close the “Add-ons” window.
  5. Go to the “Tools” menu, and click “Options.”
  6. Go to the “Applications” tab, and find the content type “Adobe Acrobat Document.”
  7. For this content type, select the “Use PDF XChange Viewer (in Firefox)” plugin for the action type.
  8. Close the “Options” window, and restart Firefox.

Thus far, PDF XChange seems to be working quite well. Comments are not yet searchable in the most recent build, but searchable text from the PDF itself remains searchable. So, at least initially, PDF XChange looks like it might help save trees, cut printing costs, and streamline workflow.