Daily Gleanings: Romans (27 December 2019)

Chris Tilling has a very fine two-part lecture on Karl Barth’s commentary on Romans (part 1, part 2).

In particular, the lecture addresses several ways in which Barth’s commentary is likely to evoke criticism from New Testament scholars. On the other hand, Tilling also sketches some things that New Testament scholars can learn from Barth about both Romans and doing theology.

The Expositor’s Greek Testament

The Expositor’s Greek Testament appeared in several editions after its initial release in 1897. Volumes from several printings released before 1923 are openly available online.1 While the Expositor’s Greek Testament is increasingly dated, it also preserves some keen exegetical insights that more recent commentators have continued to find helpful.

An Example: Baptism for the Dead

For example, G. G. Findlay wrote the section on 1 Corinthians (vol. 2, pp. 727–953), a letter where I’ve been spending a good deal of time lately. Findlay is often cited as one of the seminal proponents of the “dying mother” interpretation of “those who are being baptized in behalf of the dead” in 1 Cor 15:29. Findlay suggests,

P[aul] is referring … to a much commoner, indeed a normal experience, that the death of Christians leads to the conversion of survivors, who in the first instance “for the sake of the dead” (their beloved dead), and in the hope of reunion turn to Christ—e.g., when a dying mother wins her son by the appeal “Meet me in heaven!” … Paul designates such converts “baptised for the dead.” (931)

More recently, Maria Raedner, Anthony Thiselton, and others have continued to find this line of interpretation most persuasive.2

As all interpretations of 1 Cor 15:29 do, this reading has its virtues as well as its challenges. Pausing to point these out here would take me too far afield.

The important point here is rather the continued afterlife that Findlay’s comments from the Expositor’s Greek Testament have had in subsequent scholarship. Doubtless, there are other good similar examples that could be cited too.

So the Expositor’s Greek Testament certainly isn’t at the cutting edge of New Testament interpretation. But its contributors do make some helpful observations. And at the very least, the work remains important in the history of English-language New Testament scholarship.

Multiple Editions

With this in mind, it’s helpful to have a basic grasp of its publication history. As usual, you would typically want to refer to the most recent version of the Expositor’s Greek Testament.

This way, you get the version of the work that includes the most corrections, updates, and other improvements by comparison to previous versions.3 But this isn’t always easy given the publication information available for the Expositor’s Greek Testament—and often other older books too.


The first edition of the Expositor’s Greek Testament seems to have been released in 1897 by Doran. Courtesy of the University of Toronto, all five volumes of this edition are openly available online (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4, vol. 5). It is this first edition that Logos reproduces in its release of the Expositor’s Greek Testament.

Hodder and Stoughton

A second edition then began appearing in 1901 under the auspices of Hodder and Stoughton. But it seems not all volumes in this edition note that they are from the “second edition.”

Published in 1901, at least some printings of vol. 2 explicitly identify themselves as a “second edition.” Other printings, however, do not, as is perhaps also the case for vol. 3, published in 1903.

Then, in 1910, Hodder and Stoughton released at least a partial 6th ed. Of this, vol. 1 and perhaps vol. 4 and vol. 5 are openly available online.

Dodd, Meade, & Co.

A further printing appeared by Dodd, Mead, & Co. in 1902–1910. Of this printing, at least three volumes are openly available online (vol. 1, vol. 4, vol. 5).

The front matter for vol. 1 of this printing also suggests that Dodd, Mead, & Co. held (or subsequently obtained?) the copyright to the Expositor’s Greek Testament dating back to the time of the first edition’s initial release by Doran in 1897.

Hendrickson and Eerdmans

In the early 2000s, Hendrickson reissued the Expositor’s Greek Testament. In these volumes, Hendrickson explicitly acknowledges that the pages of its edition are “reprinted from the edition originally published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.” The Hendrickson edition gives no further information about the provenance of its material, however.

Eerdmans published at least three (and perhaps more) runs of the Expositor’s Greek Testament respectively in 1967, 1974, and 1980. Presumably each of these runs traces its origins back to the same earlier edition(s) from 1897–1910. But in none of these three runs is there an explicit acknowledgement of which prior edition(s) provides the source for Eerdmans’s printing.


In the end, some of the publication history of the Expositor’s Greek Testament remains quite opaque. A fuller understanding of this history would likely yield clearer guidance about how best to consult this text.

For the moment, the most recent editions that are readily accessible online appear to be:

Of course, the Hendrickson and Eerdmans copies are still more recent, but these are simply reproductions of one of the earlier editions. And it’s important to note too that if a possible difference between different editions is significant for a given research project, you may need to extend your search beyond what is already openly available online. But in the interim until the publication history of the Expositor’s Greek Testament becomes clearer, these online copies provide some excellent starting places for accessing this work.

  1. Header image provided by Internet Archive

  2. See Maria Raeder, “Vikariatstaufe in 1 Cor 15:29,” ZNW 46.3–4 (1955): 258–60; Anthony C. Thiselton, The First Epistle to the Corinthians: A Commentary on the Greek Text, NIGTC (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 1242–49. 

  3. There are, however, exceptions to this rule. For an example, see “Migne’s ‘Patrologia Latina’: Mystery Solved” and “A Further Update on Migne’s ‘Patrologia Latina.” 

Cyril of Alexandria’s Commentary on the Twelve Prophets

Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444) probably wrote his Commentary on the Twelve Prophets sometime before 428 (ODCC, s.v. “Cyril, St”; Robert C. Hill, trans., Cyril of Alexandria: Commentary on the Twelve, 1:4). The commentary is available in J.-P. Migne’s Patrologia Graeca via Documenta Catholica Omnia:

The two-volume critical edition of Philip Pusey (Clarendon, 1868) is also available via Google Books:

Header image provided by José Luiz

Calvin’s commentaries

John Calvin’s commentaries have been brought into varying English versions. The version published in Edinburgh by Calvin Translation Society, 1844–1856, is the version that has been reprinted by Baker Academic and Logos Bible Software.

Many of these volumes are openly available online. Below is a list with links to those that I’ve located thus far. Volumes not yet found are:

  • Psalms (vol. 1)
  • Isaiah (vol. 1)
  • Catholic Letters

Interested readers who may find these volumes are specially welcome to post links below to help complete the list.

Genesis (vol. 1, vol. 2)

A harmony of Exodus–Deuteronomy (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4)


Psalms (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4, vol. 5)

Isaiah (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4)

Jeremiah, Lamentations (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4, vol. 5)

Ezekiel 1–20 (vol. 1, vol. 2)

Daniel (vol. 1, vol. 2)

Minor prophets (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4, vol. 5)

A harmony of the Synoptics (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3)

John (vol. 1, vol. 2)

Acts (vol. 1, vol. 2)


1–2 Corinthians (vol. 1, vol. 2)

Galatians, Ephesians

Philippians, Colossians, 1–2 Thessalonians

1–2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon


Catholic letters

Ad fontes @Logos

Graves, ed., "Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church" coverI’ve previously mentioned Michael Graves’s Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church (Fortress, 2017).  The text is part of a projected 8-volume series. Logos Bible Software now has the first four volumes available for order via their pre-publication program. This includes

  • Michael Graves, ed., Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church’
  • Maria E. Doerfler and George Kalantzis, eds., Church and Empire
  • Everett Ferguson and George Kalantzis, eds., Understandings of the Church
  • Helen Rhee and George Kalantzis, eds., Wealth and Poverty in Early Christianity

For more information about the half-series bundle or to order, see the Logos website.

Graves, ed., “Biblical interpretation in the early church”

Graves, ed., "Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church" coverAvailable in Fortress’s Ad fontes series is Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church, edited by Michael Graves. According to the volume’s blurb,

Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church is part of Ad Fontes: Early Christian Sources, a series designed to present ancient Christian texts essential to an understanding of Christian theology, ecclesiology, and practice. The books in the series will make the wealth of early Christian thought available to new generations of students of theology and provide a valuable resource for the Church. This volume focuses on how Scripture was interpreted and used for teaching by early Christian scholars and church leaders.

Developed in light of recent Patristic scholarship, Ad Fontes volumes will provide a representative sampling of theological contributions from both East and West. The series aims to provide volumes that are relevant for a variety of courses: from introduction to theology to classes on doctrine and the development of Christian thought. The goal of each volume is not to be exhaustive, but rather representative enough to denote for a non-specialist audience the multivalent character of early Christian thought, allowing readers to see how and why early Christian doctrine and practice developed the way it did.