Solutions to the Synoptic Problem: Symbol Key

The following symbols, listed alphabetically, are used in the post series that summarizes solutions to the synoptic problem:

  • A, or UrMkUrmarkus (a proto-Gospel of Mark)
  • Ar – Aramaic
  • frag – fragmentary
  • GosNaz – Gospel of the Nazarenes
  • Heb – Hebrew
  • L – a special, Lukan source
  • Lk – Luke
  • M – a special, Matthean source
  • Mk – Mark
  • Mt – Matthew
  • Or – an oral source
  • Q – a hypothetical source roughly consisting of non-Markan material common to Matthew and Luke
  • Sem – a document in a Semitic language (Hebrew or Aramaic)
  • UrevUrevangelium (proto-Gospel)
  • UrLk – a proto-Gospel of Luke
  • X1, 2, 3, n (where X stands for a Gospel) – If X exists in more than one edition, higher numbers denote editions subsequent to the editions marked by earlier numbers. These later editions have edited one or more earlier editions in some way.
  • X → Y (where X and Y stand for different Gospels) – The author of Y used X when writing Y. Or, conversely, X provides a source for Y.

In this post:

Wilhelm Schneemelcher and Robert Wilson
Wilhelm Schneemelcher and Robert Wilson

Solutions to the Synoptic Problem: Introduction

The ‘synoptic problem’ is a phenomenon that arises because the synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke), while they contain so much similar material, do not always report the same material in the same way. Various solutions for the synoptic problem that have been proposed—so many that their nuances can be difficult to remember. This post series will attempt to compose a set of diagrams based on the summaries of these solutions that Kümmel, New Testament, provides.

In this post:

Werner Kümmmel
Werner Kümmel